Breadboard Games 2021

Given the pandemic restrictions this year Breadboard Games will be delivered remotely. Participants will each receive a kit and work with a parent to assemble the gaming console. Remote support will be provided via video.

Instructions

This is a breadboard. It allows us to connect electronic components together by pushing them into the holes. In the centre region all the holes in column 1 are connected together inside the board apart from the gap in the middle. Columns 2 to 30 work similarly. You can see more about breadboards at this location


In the outer, between the blue and red lines, connections run horizontally within the breadboard. We usually use these areas to connect power supplies for our electronic components.

Lets begin by putting the black wires into the board as shown above. The top row of holes next to the blue line will be used to distribute the 0V connections for our circuit (the negative terminal on our battery). The connections are expressed in Row,Column terms as follows:

j6 to 0V (approximately directly above just next to the blue line)
j9 to 0V
a1 to 0V
a24 to 0V
a27 to 0V
a30 to 0V

A diode only allows electricity to flow in one direction. We include one here to protect our game in case somebody connects the battery pack in backwards. The diode has two wires : Cathode and Anode.

We want electrical current to flow into hole j7 so put the cathode in there and the anode just above the red line as shown.

Connect the red wire between j5 and j10.
The other component is a resistor. Resistors control the flow of electrical current. We are using this one to limit the brightness of our display so that the batteries last longer. The resistor connections between f9 and f16. Note the way the resistor sits in the valley between both halves of the breadboard.

The screen in our game is a “touch-screen”, just like a phone. We have to add a couple of wires to support this. The yellow wire goes from e10 to f13. The blue wire goes from d9 to f23

The purple wires are used to connect the buttons to the little computer in our game. They are connected as follows:
a3 to a18
a19 to a28
a20 to a25

The buttons go in next. Each button has two “pins” that are connected together electrically when you push down. The left button we will call simply “Left”, the rightmost button we will call “Right” and the middle buttonw we will call “Fire”. The connections are as follows:
Left: c1 and c3
Fire: c25 and c27
Right : c28 and c30

We are nearly done. The computer board that controls our game needs to go in next. Before you put it in be sure that all of the previous connections are correct. It is difficult to remove the computer boards if you need to correct any errors. Push the board firmly into the breadboard with the pin marked “3.3” (top left) in hole g5.

And now for the screen. Be very careful putting this in. It goes in row i. The rightmost pin of the display goes into hole i24. Push down on the pins only, not the glass. The glass will crack if you push on it.

Our game makes sounds. The buzzer is connected between a17 and 0V (just below the blue line). The longer leg of the buzzer (labelled +) goes in to a17.

The battery pack plugs into the board as shown above. Note the red wire is closest to the red line on the breadboard. The on/off switch should be just behind the display on the right hand side. If you like you can stick the breadboard to the battery pack using the adhesive backing on the breadboard. If you decide to do this be very careful as the adhesive backing is very strong.

All software used in this game is available on my github repository

Breadboard games 2020

With the Covid-19 pandemic ongoing it is not likely there will be any further Breadboard Games events this year. There was a small event in early March in Kevin St. public library with children from Singe Street primary school. On that day the attendees built a board very similar to the one we used in
St. Audoen’s school in 2017.

So what about the rest of the year? Well, a couple of events happened this year that made me think of a particular game: the passing of John Horton Conway and the pandemic so the game is of course “The game of life”. Lots has been written about this game and I will not repeat that here, instead I will focus on how this can be implemented using a low cost microcontroller (MCU), screen and breadboard. There will likely not be “event” based on this game but maybe a reader will be inspired to try it out for themselves.

game_of_life_breadboard

The schematic
game_of_life_schematic

This circuits makes use of components I had lying left over from other breadboard games projects. The MCU is the 30 cent (approx) STM32F030F4P6. This display is a 176×220 TFT board with a parallel interface. The databus runs between PA0-PA7 on the STM32 and DB0-DB7 on the display (it is not shown completely as it would have cluttered the schematic).
The specifications of the MCU are pretty meagre: 16kB of Flash, 4kB of RAM, 48MHz clock speed. All pins have been used to control the display.

The game
Conway’s game of life is all about automata (cells) that live or die depending upon what surrounds them. Cells can die of loneliness (less that 2 neighbours), starvation (more than 3 neighbours) and they can come to life if they are bordered by exactly 3 neighbours. These rules are applied repeatedly to the cells in the landscape. I’ve chosen to do this in two passes. The first pass decides what the state of each cell will be during the next time around based on current state. The second pass switches from the old state to the new state. This of course requires memory (RAM) and this MCU only has 4kB. The display has 176×220 = 38720 pixels. The game allocates one pixel per cell so without some sort of compression there is no way this MCU can store this amount of data. To further add to the storage burden I’ve decided to go with a coloured version of GoL called Quad-Life. Each pixel can be one of 4 colours or black. Where can this be stored?

Stealing memory from the Display
The RM68130 display has enough on-board RAM to store 18bits for each of the 176×220 pixels. All of this does not have to be used for controlling the display however. If the display is switched to 8 colour mode then only 3 of those 18 bits is required per pixel (1 for red, 1 for blue and 1 for green). The remaining 15 bits can be used to hold whatever you like without impacting on what you see on screen. At least that was the theory…. I’ve been using various small displays like this for a while and up until now have had little success reading data back from them. The SPI versions are particularly tricky; some don’t even have read-back functionality. Happily the RM68130 does allow you read back from it’s graphics memory but there’s a catch: the bits you write do not come back to you in the same order. Now I’m willing to accept I may have made a mistake here but I found it VERY confusing reading data back from the display. After many hours I figured out enough to store 1 byte of my choosing alongside each pixel. This means the MCU just got an additional 38720 bytes of RAM – plenty for storing the future states of each cell. By the way there are other displays that should work like this. I’ve tried the ST7775 and the ILI9225 (both parallel interfaces) and they both worked fine

Additional game details

GoL has to start somewhere. You need some way of supplying initial states for the cells (pixels). As you can see above there are no more pins available for user input (PA13 and PA14 are used for debugging). One further feature of the display is that also functions as a resistive touch screen. The user now simply draws the initial state using a stylus (or finger).

The GoL landscape is not meant to run in to a hard border so when a cell goes beyond an edge it “wraps” around to the other side.

Gameplay
The video below shows the game “in action”. It is not particularly fast and manages about 1 update per second. Consider it a slightly interactive desk ornament 🙂

The code
Code is as usual available over here on Github. There has be no attempt to optimize the performance of this code in any way. It is shown in what is hopefully the easiest to understand mode.

The STM32F030 driving an ST7789 display

The ST7789 display used in this example is a 1.3 inch 240×240 colour LCD display. It interfaces to the STM32F030 at the pretty fast speed of 24MHz. The display is connected as follows:
stm32f030_st7789_schematic
My intention with this circuit is to create a low cost conference badge (actually for Dublin Maker 2019). The target bill-of-materials cost is €5 – most of which is attributed to the display.
stm32f030_st7789
Full size image
Connecting the hardware is only part of the story however and a software library is also required. This was based on the Breadboard Games code from last August in Wexford. The main changes that had to be addressed were the new initialization code and the openAperture code. These were based on the Adafruit library code and the manufacturer’s datasheet. This library includes some graphic drawing primitives as well as other functions to support game play (e.g. timing and random number generation). Additional functions will be added as the badge develops.
Code is available on github
A video of the library in operation is available on YouTube.