Interrupt handling is a core part of embedded systems and different architectures have different ways of dealing with it. The RISC-V Bumblebee core in the GD32VF103 uses an interrupt controller called the Enhanced Core-Local Interrupt Controller (ECLIC). All interrupts (internal and external) are handled by the ECLIC. The ECLIC handles prioritization and level/edge triggering of interrupts.The documentation on the ECLIC is pretty poor at the moment. The Bumblebee core datasheet is formatted very badly (fonts all over the place, broken diagrams etc) and it was only by combining this with the assembler provided in the GD32VF103 that I began to get a clearer picture of what is going on.
The ECLIC has two modes of dealing with interrupts : vectored and non-vectored. Vectored interrupt handling is similar to other MCU’s such as the ARM, MSP430 etc. The CPU receives interrupt request ‘N’ and finds the interrupt handler by looking up entry ‘N’ in the interrupt vector table. Saving of registers (context saving) is left to the writer of the interrupt handler and on exit the handler often must execute a return from interrupt instruction (though not for all architectures).
Non-Vectored interrupt handling is quite different. All interrupt requests cause the same interrupt handler code to be executed initially. This code saves the CPU registers, finds out which interrupt happened and calls the handler pointed to by the appropriate interrupt vector table entry. This happens using a standard subroutine/function call instruction. The handler deals with the interrupt and executes a normal function return instruction. The registers are then restored and a return from interrupt instruction is executed.
The advantage of this approach is that the code to preserve/restore the registers is done (safely) and only needs to occur once in memory. Also, the interrupt handlers can be written in C or C++ without the need to tag on unusual attributes like “interrupt” etc. The potential disadvantage is that maybe the handling of interrupts is a little slower than it might have been using the vectored approach because you end up saving and restoring all CPU registers – whether you use them or not.
Excerpt from ~/.platformio/packages/framework-gd32vf103-sdk/RISCV/env_Eclipse/entry.S
irq_entry: // -------------> This label will be set to MTVT2 register
// Allocate the stack space
SAVE_CONTEXT// Save 16 regs
//------This special CSR read operation, which is actually use mcause as operand to directly store it to memory
csrrwi x0, CSR_PUSHMCAUSE, 17
//------This special CSR read operation, which is actually use mepc as operand to directly store it to memory
csrrwi x0, CSR_PUSHMEPC, 18
//------This special CSR read operation, which is actually use Msubm as operand to directly store it to memory
csrrwi x0, CSR_PUSHMSUBM, 19
// ****************** THIS IS WHERE THE JUMP TO THE INTERRUPT HANDLER FUNCTION HAPPENS! **************
//------This special CSR read/write operation, which is actually Claim the CLIC to find its pending highest
// ID, if the ID is not 0, then automatically enable the mstatus.MIE, and jump to its vector-entry-label, and
// update the link register
csrrw ra, CSR_JALMNXTI, ra
#---- Critical section with interrupts disabled -----------------------
DISABLE_MIE # Disable interrupts
LOAD x5, 19*REGBYTES(sp)
csrw CSR_MSUBM, x5
LOAD x5, 18*REGBYTES(sp)
csrw CSR_MEPC, x5
LOAD x5, 17*REGBYTES(sp)
csrw CSR_MCAUSE, x5
// Return to regular code
The comments just before the instruction csrrw ra, CSR_JALMNXTI, ra are a little obscure but their sense is clear enough: If there is a pending interrupt the ECLIC will execute a call to its interrupt handler and will update the Link Register so that when the handler executes a return from subroutine instruction control will return to the next line in the irq_entry.
The macros SAVE_CONTEXT, RESTORE_CONTEXT are defined elsewhere in the startup source code. The constant CSR_JALMNXTI evalautes to 0x7ed – a register number in the ECLIC. According to the Bumblebee core data sheet this register is
“The custom register is used to enable the ECLIC interrupt. The read operation of this register can process the next interrupt and return the entry address of the next interrupt handler. Jump to this address.”.
This is the mechanism by which the developer supplied interrupt handler is called.
How does the irq_entry code get called in the first place? Looking at the code for .platformio/packages/framework-gd32vf103-sdk/RISCV/env_Eclipse/start.S we find the following code that executes during boot:
csrc CSR_MSTATUS, MSTATUS_MIE
/* Jump to logical address first to ensure correct operation of RAM region */
la a0, _start
li a1, 1
slli a1, a1, 29
bleu a1, a0, _start0800
srli a1, a1, 2
bleu a1, a0, _start0800
la a0, _start0800
add a0, a0, a1
/* Set the the NMI base to share with mtvec by setting CSR_MMISC_CTL */
li t0, 0x200
csrs CSR_MMISC_CTL, t0
/* Intial the mtvt*/
la t0, vector_base
csrw CSR_MTVT, t0
/* Intial the mtvt2 and enable it*/
la t0, irq_entry
csrw CSR_MTVT2, t0
csrs CSR_MTVT2, 0x1
Note the instructions la t0, irq_entry , csrw CSR_MTVT2, t0 . These tell the ECLIC where to find the irq_entry code. The Bumblebee core reference manual defines this register CSR_MTV2 (0x7ec) as
“Custom registers are used to set non-vector interrupt handling Mode interrupt entry address” .
So, there we have it. The picture below shows my rough understanding of the process.
I have written up two more demo programs: One which uses the internal clock cycle timer interrupt (mtimecmp) (Systick interrupt), the other uses Timer 6 as an external source of timer interrupts (TimerIRQ). Code is available over on Github